Selected Resources and Research About Sexual Harassment, Sexual Violence, and Title IX
Essential Fact Sheets for Students
The Next Generation of Title IX: Harassment and Bullying Based on Sex. This fact sheet discusses the next generation of Title IX issues, such as protecting gender non-conforming students and cyberbullying. (National Women’s Law Center, 2012)
Cyberbullying and Sexual Harassment: FAQs About Cyberbullying and Title IX. This fact sheet explains why cyberbullying is and how schools should respond to cyberbullying in and out of school. (National Women’s Law Center)
Know Your Rights: Title IX Requires Your School to Address Sexual Violence. This fact sheet lists the obligations of schools to respect your Title IX rights regarding sexual assault. (U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, 2014)
Title IX Protections from Bullying and Harassment in Schools: FAQs for LGBT or Gender Nonconforming Students . This fact sheet in Q&A format explains Title IX protections against harassment and bullying towards LGTB and gender nonconforming students. (National Women’s Law Center, 2012)
Legal Resource Kit: Sexual Harassment in the Schools. Presents factual information about sexual harassment, Title IX, filing a lawsuit, a blueprint for action, and numerous resources. (Legal Momentum, 2008).
How Families Should Work With Title IX Coordinators. Practical tips created by the Feminist Majority Foundation for SSAIS. (2016)
Title IX Coordinators: Key to Fighting Sex Discrimination in Education. Discusses how to renew efforts to increase the ranks of effective and independent Title IX Coordinators and support them as equity leaders. (Feminist Majority Foundation, 2015)
Know Your Rights: Title IX & The Clery Act. Nicely organized summary of students’ rights and schools’ obligations under Title IX (note that the Clery Act pertains to post-secondary schools). (Texas Association Against Sexual Assault, 2014)
Public school districts and elementary and secondary schools must submit data (including the number of reported incidents of sexual harassment and sexual violence) to the biennial Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) maintained by the Office for Civil Rights. Here is a list of CRDC Data Elements for School Year 2015–16.
Sexual Violence Coalitions
National Directory of Sexual Violence Coalitions. The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) has an online directory that highlights organizations and projects working to eliminate sexual violence.
Research and Surveys on Sexual Violence in K-12 Schools
Statistics About Sexual Violence. This factsheet summarizes national surveys on sexual violence and child sexual abuse in the U.S., cost and impact studies, and crime reports. (National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2015).
Let Her Learn: Stopping School Pushout for Girls Who Have Suffered Harassment and Sexual Violence. This report delves into the data on girls who are victims of harassment and sexual violence, examines the impact it has on their education, and offers solutions to better serve and support them in schools. (National Women’s Law Center, 2017)
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. This report provides data for states to help them better understand the extent of intimate partner, sexual violence, and stalking and to inform state and national efforts to better prevent this violence and support victims when it occurs. (Centers for Disease Control, 2017) Factsheet Infographic
Perpetual Violence is not a “Best Practice:” The Intervention and Prevention of Peer-on-Peer Sexual Harassment at Berkeley High School. This honors thesis by Morgan Hartig explores the disparity between how Berkeley Unified School District perceives the adequacy of their interventions to improve the Berkeley High School school climate and the reality of the intervention outcomes as they impact students. (Unpublished honors thesis, UC Berkeley, 2018)
Bringing Title IX to Bear on the Problem of Sexual Violence in Schools. Two-part article that discusses the legal standards that were brought to bear on a recent Title IX case regarding a student-on-student rape at a Texas public high school. Part 1 Part 2 (Verdict, 2012)
Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence Experiences Among Middle School Youth. This study presents evidence that middle school youth have experienced a wide range of upsetting sexual violence experiences that seem to be unaddressed by adults in these schools. (AERA, 2014)
Adolescents’ Experiences of Sexual Assault by Peers: Prevalence and Nature of Victimization Occurring Within and Outside of School. This study examined adolescent peer-on-peer sexual assault victimization occurring within and outside school. (Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2009)
Normalizing Sexual Violence: Young Women Account for Harassment and Abuse. This study discusses how sexual violence is produced, maintained, and normalized among youth. (Gender & Society, 2014)
Crossing the Line: Sexual Harassment at School. This report presents new evidence on sexual harassment, including cyber-harassment, in middle and high schools. It confirms that sexual harassment remains an unfortunate part of school culture, affecting the educational experiences of millions of students, especially girls. (AAUW, 2011)
Incapacitated and Forcible Rape of College Women: Prevalence Across the First Year. This study demonstrates that a precollege history of sexual assault, particularly incapacitated rape, predicts revictimization, increasing the odds of both incapacitated rape and forcible rape in the first year of college. (Journal of Adolescent Health, 2015)
Institutional Betrayal and Betrayal Blindness. University of Oregon Department of Psychology researchers Carly Smith and Jennifer Freyd have developed the Institutional Betrayal Questionnaire (IBQ) to measure institutional betrayal regarding sexual assault.
Research on LGBTQ+ Students
The 2015 National School Climate Survey. The GLSEN annual climate survey charts the school experiences of LGBTQ youth in schools, including the extent of the challenges that they face at school and the school-based resources that support LGBTQ students’ well-being. (GLSEN, 2017)
Health Risks Among Sexual Minority Youth. The first nationally representative study on the health risks of U.S. lesbian, gay, and bisexual high school students. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016)
A Hidden Crisis Including the LGBT Community When Addressing Sexual Violence on College Campuses. This brief argues for the need for more data if schools are to understand the impact of sexual assault on the LGBT community. (Center for American Progress, 2014)
Title IX: An Imperfect but Vital Tool To Stop Bullying of LGBT Students. Federal courts and agencies are increasingly holding school districts accountable under Title IX when schools fail to protect LGBT students from gender-based bullying. (Yale Law Review, 2016)
The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway in Early Adolescence. Study shows that bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were significant predictors of sexual harassment perpetration over time. (Centers for Disease Control, 2008).
Research on Educator Sexual Abuse
A Case Study of K-12 School Employee Sexual Misconduct: Lessons Learned from Title IX Policy Implementation. Researchers collected data from 92 participants (41 interviews and 10 focus groups), as well as a review of documentation and policies, in five geographically and demographically diverse districts. All five districts experienced an incident of school employee sexual misconduct in 2014; the data were collected in 2016–2017.
Ignorance of Title IX Among K-12 School Districts
Ending Harassment Now: Keeping our Kids Safe at School. This report discusses the lack of Title IX compliance within 116 school districts in the San Francisco Bay area. (Equal Rights Advocates, 2015)
Essential Information for Schools
Ashland (OR) Public Schools Sexual Harassment Title IX Policy. Developed with the assistance of the Jackson County, OR Sexual Assault Response Team, this student- and parent-friendly policy can serve as a model for every school district.
Title IX at 45: Advancing Opportunity through Equity in Education. This report outlines issues and recommendations in six areas covered by Title IX: STEM, CTE, athletics, sexual harassment and assault, single-sex education, and the rights of pregnant and parenting students. It also looks at the role of Title IX coordinators in helping schools comply with the law. SSAIS assisted with the development of the chapter on sexual harassment and assault. (National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education, 2017)
Cape Cod Community College OCR Case No. 01-93- 2047 [OCR Case Resolution Letter]. In this case, the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights (OCR) found Cape Cod Community College to have violated Title IX in part because the person identified by the school as the Title IX Coordinator was unfamiliar with Title IX, had no training, and did not even know that he was the Coordinator. (Office for Civil Rights, 1993)
Reinvigorating the Role of the Title IX Coordinator: A Requirement and Resource. A groundbreaking multi-year report that discusses the critical role of Title IX Coordinators in implementing Title IX to end sex discrimination in federally funded education programs from preschool through graduate school. SSAIS assisted with the development of this report. (Feminist Majority Foundation, 2016)
State & Large School District Title IX Gender Equity Coordinators, Methods of Administration Coordinators & other State and District Level Gender Equity Experts. Developed by the Education Equality Program of the Feminist Majority Foundation, this document is designed to help build an effective network of Title IX coordinators at all levels of education throughout the U.S. (2019)
Sexual Violence Among our Students: The School Counselor’s Legal Role. Explains to school counselors how Title IX affects their responsibilities toward students in the aftermath of sexual assault. (ASCA School Counselor, 2012)
Handbook for Achieving Gender Equity through Education (2nd edition). An essential reference work on gender equity in education. (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2007)
Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment K-12: Strategies and Solutions for Educators to Use in the Classroom, School, and Community. With more than 700 specific strategies and solutions to use in the classroom, school, and community, this book covers just about everything that educators need, providing a comprehensive and detailed blueprint for an overall plan and policy to prevent and deal with peer harassment. (R&L Education, 2005)
Safe Relationships and Sexual Harassment. A high school sexual harassment slide presentation by the San Francisco Unified School District.
Sexual Assault in Postsecondary Institutions
Not Alone: The First Report of the White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault. This first Task Force report focuses on sexual assault at postsecondary institutions – such as colleges, universities, community colleges, graduate and professional schools, and trade schools – that receive federal financial assistance. (U.S. Government, 2014)
Uncomfortable Conversations: Confronting the Reality of Target Rape on Campus. Important commentary by Harvard professor Diane Rosenfeld on the application of Title IX to campus sexual assault. (Harvard Law Review, 2015).
Revenge Porn (non-consensual image sharing)
Nonconsensual Image Sharing Isn’t Pornography — It’s Sexual Assault. This article summarizes research on the effects of nonconsensual sharing of text messages and images (“revenge porn”), from these published studies: Nonconsensual Image Sharing: One In 25 Americans Has Been A Victim Of “Revenge Porn” , A Qualitative Analysis of the Mental Health Effects of Revenge Porn on Female Survivors, and Sexting among singles in the USA: prevalence of sending, receiving, and sharing sexual messages and images. (The MSW@USC, the Online master of social work program at the University of Southern California, 2018)
Sexual Assault Hazing
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