Combating Rampant Sexual Harassment and Assault
by Esther Warkov, Executive Director, SSAIS
#MeTooK12 is a social media hashtag created by the national nonprofit Stop Sexual Assault in Schools (SSAIS.org). The campaign encourages victims of sexual harassment and assault by peers or school staff to share their experiences while they attend K-12 schools. It also encourages secondary victims—the victim’s friends, family, and allies—to share how sexual harassment negatively impacts students. The hashtag spotlights the widespread sexual harassment that students experience before entering college or the workforce, and underscores the urgency of addressing this problem in early education.
SSAIS invited the NWLC, a champion of the students’ civil rights, to partner in this campaign. Their participation continues a series of collaborative efforts that began with President and CEO Fatima Goss Graves’s inaugural blog for the SSAIS website and Director of Education Neena Chaudhry’s appearance in Sexual Harassment: Not in Our School! The NWLC website recently featured SSAIS in “Why We Need Title IX to Let Her Learn: A Parent’s Perspective.”
SSAIS encourages the use of #MeTooK12 as the logical continuation of #MeToo and the NWLC campaign #MeTooWhatsNext. Although SSAIS spearheaded the movement to raise awareness of the negative effects of rampant K-12 sexual harassment and assault in the media, the public has yet to connect the dots from K-12 sexual harassment and assault to college and the workplace. Moreover, schools’ failure to protect students from sexual harassment and assault constitute a violation of students’ civil rights under Title IX, a federal civil rights law.
Although #MeToo benefitted from the participation of high profile individuals, K-12 campaigns lack the support they urgently deserve, as SSAIS.org wrote in “Why Lady Gaga Should Be Talking to a Rape Victim’s Mother About K-12 Sexual Assault.” And although reports such as “Sexual violence isn’t just a college problem. It happens in K-12 schools, too, Hidden horror of school sex assaults revealed by AP” and “Ending Sexual Harassment and Assault: Effective Measures Protect All Students” demonstrate just how rampant these problems are, the public remains in the dark because violations are under-reported by students, who are forced to normalize sexual harassment, and by schools guarding their reputations. As a result, national studies show a glaring discrepancy between the small number of schools reporting incidents of sexual harassment and the large number of students saying they experience it.
Under the Trump administration and Department of Education leadership, we lack vigorous Title IX enforcement from the Department’s Office for Civil Rights. Since we can’t count on federal oversight we must compel compliance through community engagement. As SSAIS told the Washington Post, the solution requires a massive grass roots education effort to inform families, schools, and local organizations about schools’ responsibilities, students’ Title IX rights, and recourses when schools fail.
Few people of influence understand how sexual harassment and assault devastate the lives of K-12 students, their families, and friends—beginning in elementary school; and the younger the victim, the more devastating the impact and greater vulnerability to repeated assault. Not only do the survivors’ emotional and psychological scars endure long after the incidents, their social lives, education, and career dreams can be shattered. For some, the trauma is insurmountable; sexual harassment and sexual assault have driven an increasing number of adolescents to suicide.
Sexual violence on college campuses and sexual harassment in the workplace occur because students are afforded ample opportunity to practice these behaviors in their formative years. It’s imperative that public figures and celebrities also join the Me TooK12 campaign to end sexual harassment and assault in K-12.
A community problem we can all address
Remarkably, the public does not yet realize that sexual harassment and sexual assault are community problems that extend far beyond the primary victim. Research shows that the majority of teenage students have been affected by peer sexual harassment but rarely seek help. Because schools frequently discount or dismiss reports of sexual harassment or assault, students are discouraged from reporting; many of these victims become perpetrators of sexual harassment. By failing to properly address sexual harassment, schools foster an unsafe climate where sexual harassment and assault occur.
To fill this need, Stop Sexual Assault in Schools created comprehensive free education for the K-12 audience, Sexual Harassment: Not in Our School! The streaming video and Action Guide model a collaborative effort where students work alongside parents and community organizations to create safe schools. It follows a high school gender equity club strategizing to address sex discrimination, interviewing nationally recognized education, legal, and LGBTQ experts, and learning from counselors, advocates, parents, and peers. One student concludes that, “When we make change at school, we’re changing society too.”
The Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Betsy DeVos’s High School Alma Mater: What It Means For Every Student
by Esther Warkov, Executive Director, SSAIS
There are phone calls a parent never wants to get. We received one such call, informing us that our daughter had been raped on a school field trip. Living through the nightmare of the rape and its aftermath was devastating, but equally traumatic was the fallout we experienced when the school failed to uphold our daughter’s civil rights under Title IX. Like countless families, we became victims of “institutional betrayal,” as I describe in Why We Need Title IX to Let Her Learn: A Parent’s Perspective. Little did we know our experience would later provide an opportunity to educate the US Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, about the violation of Title IX in her own alma mater, Holland Christian School, and to explain why this lawsuit is so important for all students.
As secondary victims of our daughter’s assault, we parents have come full circle: we are empowered advocates, educating families about their rights under Title IX, the civil rights law we knew little about when we needed it the most. Our understanding of Title IX now likely exceeds that of US Education Secretary Betsy DeVos. It’s both ironic and telling that parents who were once victims are obliged to call out Betsy DeVos’s alma mater for violating Title IX. Although we deplore the weak level of Title IX enforcement in both public and private schools, we take satisfaction in the opportunity to use this case as a “teachable moment.”
Today, we announce the lawsuit against Holland Christian School and explain what this means for millions of public and private school students. Learn why in short video The Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Betsy DeVos’s High School Alma Mater. Read the video transcript here.
#MeTooK12: Centering Young Students in the Fight to End Sexual Violence
by Sabrina Stevens, Senior Digital and Mobilization Manager, National Women’s Law Center
A few weeks ago, when #MeToo was first beginning to spread online, I was chatting on a friend’s Facebook wall after she wrote a piece asking whether schools should teach boys to respect girls. Seeing some skeptics already popping up in the thread, I chimed in to affirm her stance, and expand it with some observations of my own:
- When educators uphold sexist dress codes that contain more rules for girls than boys because “boys find _____ distracting,” they are teaching students that girls’ bodies and clothing are more responsible for boys’ actions than the boys themselves. That’s reinforcing rape culture.
- When adults write off sexual rumor spreading and sexist name calling (“slut,” etc.) as teen gossip, instead of correctly identifying it as sexual harassment and intervening [to stop] students from creating a hostile learning environment for the girls targeted by those rumors, they’re reinforcing rape culture.
- When educators fail to respond quickly and appropriately to students’ reports of sexual assault and harassment, and even punish girls for engaging in sexual activity after reporting being assaulted, they’re definitely reinforcing rape culture. This list could, unfortunately, go on for much longer.
- I now work every day raising awareness on behalf of students whose Title IX rights are violated in this manner, and the profession has to do better. I know folks bristle at being asked to “do more,” but this isn’t one of those things where schools are being unfairly asked to address a problem for the rest of society. School-specific manifestations of rape culture abound, and schools HAVE to do something about it. It’s a moral and legal imperative.
I’ve had countless conversations like this well before, but especially after #MeToo began to trend. As a former teacher, a longtime education activist, and a parent, I know all too well that the K-12 space is overdue for a #MeToo reckoning of its own. After all, it’s hard to even go to school every day – let alone focus if you actually make it to class – when someone is making you feel unsafe by snapping your bra, or if you can’t sleep at night as a result of PTSD, or if you’re forced to sit in a classroom with the person who raped you, or if you’re constantly surrounded by your attacker’s friends harassing you in the aftermath. Because sexual harassment, including assault, disproportionately impacts girls and LGBTQ youth, schools’ failure to deal with it disproportionately impacts their educational and economic well-being – precisely the kind of discrimination Title IX exists to prohibit. This is an urgent civil rights issue that schools must address.
College student activists have finally begun to make some headway in getting university administrators to take the problem of campus rape seriously, progress that the sexist extremists advising Betsy DeVos are working very hard to undo. Still, it has remained an uphill battle to get the rest of the educational community and the broader public to recognize that sexual harassment and assault are problems K-12 schools need to address as well. But NWLC’s and others’ research reveals that the shocking statistics that created alarm on college campuses hold for girls under 18; more than one in five girls experience some form of sexual assault before they reach adulthood, with even higher rates for girls with disabilities, girls of color, and LGBTQ youth.
Worse, many of these students do not get the help and support they need to recover and thrive in school. Few student survivors ever report the abuse they’ve suffered to adults, and those who do are frequently met with indifference or outright hostility, as many of NWLC’s student clients and other survivors who have been punished and pushed out of school can attest. As a result, sexual harassment costs too many students critical academic and economic opportunities, further compounding the already immense harm and trauma of being harassed and/or assaulted.
It doesn’t have to be this way. As I’ve said before and will say again, sexual violence is an entirely solvable problem. But to do that, we have to raise awareness of the problem as well as promising solutions, and that’s what #MeTooK12 is all about. We need all school stakeholders – district leaders and administrators, educators, students, families, and community members alike – to be a part of this movement, so we can increase the number of people who understand (and teach!) boundaries and consent, who can recognize and stop abuse when they see it, and who can respond compassionately and appropriately in the (hopefully increasingly rare) event that a student experiences harassment or assault.
We have both the power and the responsibility to keep our children safe, but we can only be successful when we work together. Get started today by reading the resources and reflections shared on the #MeTooK12 hashtag, as well as on our website and our partners’ at Stop Sexual Assault in Schools. Sign up to take action to oppose attacks on survivors’ rights, and to be part of this cultural shift in your community. Tweet and share your own thoughts on how you plan to be part of the solution. Our children deserve safe spaces to learn.
From survivor to advocate: demanding change in the Portland, OR, school district
by Annabelle Schwartz[See Annabelle’s activism online: Oregon Live, KATU-TV, Planned Parenthood video]
My name is Annabelle Schwartz, I am 18 years old, an activist, and a survivor of a peer sexual assault. It took me a long time after my initial experience to realize what had happened to me. I remember the first person I told, my boyfriend at the time, who held me as I cried in his green Toyota. At that point I could barely comprehend what I had been through, or how it would shape me into the person I am now. All I knew when I was 15 years old was that finally telling someone was my way of admitting to myself the truth of what had happened.
Almost half a decade later, that truth follows me in everything I do and is present with every person I speak to. There was no ah-ha moment that made me an advocate, but rather a slow shift in me that said, “If I can prevent others from going through what I’ve been through, and give other survivors that power as well, why not do it?” The same year I admitted aloud what happened to me, I attended my first slutwalk. I was already a vocal feminist through the blood of my mother and her mother; and the combination of that knowledge with the new realization of my identity as a survivor pushed me toward this event. There, by coincidence I ended up bonding with others girls from my high school, one of whom later connected with me about bringing the energy from the slutwalk to a club at school.
That was the beginning of S.A.F.E.R (Students Active for Ending Rape), a club aimed at combating sexual assault, supporting survivors, and discussing the roots of unhealthy bias in our society. We mostly held meetings to share information and stimulate healthy discussion among our peers. We also held a summit with leaders from different areas of sexual assault prevention work (professors, therapists, lawyers etc.), and taught about sexual assault at community events. I spent two years with S.A.F.E.R before graduating, and as a senior helped three other high schools in the Portland area create their own S.A.F.E.R. chapters.
During this time, however, my greatest work was advocating to change policy around sexual assault and harassment for the entire Portland public school district. Because I was an outspoken survivor, many of my younger peers who had recently been sexually assaulted would come to me for guidance. I was humbled by the trust they put in me– to be a shoulder for them to lean on as well as someone that could advocate for them to get the resources they deserved. At one point, three girls came to me, all with stories of being sexually harassed and assaulted by the same boy. Not only had he molested them, he was now stalking and intimidating them on school grounds, calling them “bitches” in the hallways and threatening them if they came came forward with their stories.
At a certain point it was clear that the girls’ case with the police was not going to continue (an issue warranting an entire blog of its own). With few options to remove the attacker from their lives, we decided the best choice was to go to our school administration, lay the entire story on the table, and demand that they provide a safe place to learn at school. But they didn’t seem too interested in helping. They told us their hands were tied. I pointed out that policy stated that administration could suggest a student attend another high school within the district, but our principal was not interested in doing this out of fear of “ruining the perpetrator’s life.” Because there was no process in place to deal with this situation, the principal said, she couldn’t handle it.
That’s when I decided to go higher up the chain. In November of 2015 I went to the board of Portland public schools and told them the survivors’ stories. I questioned why they didn’t already have policy in place that directly explained how to handle repercussions from sexual assault and harassment within schools, and demanded that this be changed immediately. At first the reaction of the board members was strong, they were astonished this was taking place in a school they oversaw, and they wanted to make changes happen, but after a few months it seemed to be old news to them.
After reaching out again I found that asking one board member to work with me specifically was a better tactic, and was connected with one of the district’s legal counsel, Jeff Fish, to finally craft this policy. I gave him my list of ideas that I hoped would be included, and he came up with powerfully worded policy that included the appointment of a full-time district Title IX Coordinator to handle these matters. We jointly presented to the board and Jeff, who was now my champion, worked hard to get the policy implemented before he left PPS for a different job.
Unfortunately his absence, and my move across the country for the college, meant the process was delayed for as long as the board wanted. I reached out to the board again during my first semester of college, and asked for an update on their process and a more speedy implementation of all the provisions they had originally agreed to. We are still waiting as the policy moves through the bureaucracy before it can fully serve the students it is intended to protect.
Our country has seemingly found our breaking point in covering up the issue of sexual assault The number of survivors coming forward with their stories has birthed the possibility of a new way of regarding sexual assault in our communities. The #MeToo moment is upon us, and we all have to do our part to propel its light into every related area. For me, this means continuing my work with young survivors of sexual assault within school systems nationwide.
That’s why I am proud to support #MeTooK12 and join together with SSAIS to share my work and hopefully inspire others to combat sexual assault in their community’s schools. There are millions of us out there in the world–young people who have been sexually assaulted before they have a college diploma, before they move out of their parents’ home, many before they’ve ever even had a positive sexual experience. And the strategy we use to combat sexual assault for these young people has to be specifically targeted for our demographic. The strategy must be pushed into our schools, where we spend most of our days, and it must recognize that conversations about consent should begin as early as possible.
In my path of advocacy, I have found the greatest detriment are people who believe in the mission, but are not willing to speak out and take action. I know that for a long time the topic of sexual assault as been avoided. People are afraid to speak about trauma, maybe because it scares them, or because they think it will scare those around them, but every time someone who isn’t a survivor dares to challenge the silence surrounding the epidemic, another victim has the chance to speak their truth, like I could.
Moving forward, I ask that each and every person reach out to those making waves in their community and ask what they can do to prevent sexual harassment and assault in schools. Support young people who are already survivors. For the #MeToo moment to take full effect, it must combat sexual assault in our schools as much as any other place, and that requires help from the entire community.
Parents: You Can Become the Agent of Change for Title IX Policies in Your Schools
by Susan Moen, Executive Director, Jackson County (OR) SART
Most parents are not aware of deficiencies in their schools’ response protocols for sexual harassment and assault–until their own child (or a friend’s) experiences the life-altering harm that can result. Parents are forced to become activists when their own family is impacted, or they are driven to action by heartbreaking stories and pleas of “don’t let this happen to another student.” Spurring a community to action too often means having to share details of an incident of harassment or violence after it has occurred.
While personal stories are powerful tools for bringing change, wouldn’t it be wonderful for our parent communities to be able to bring the needed change to their schools before that next story unfolds? We would like to encourage parents to proactively learn what their schools are doing with regard to Title IX protections; and if improvements need to be made, do so before having to react to a problem that comes to light. Here are some places to start:
- Every school should have a sexual harassment and a teen dating violence policy that defines what this behavior is and how to report–finding this is the place to start. These policies are usually the responsibility of the School Board and based on state policies. They should be easy to find on a school’s website.
- A school’s Title IX plan should also be easily accessible on its website. This plan should provide clear descriptions of student rights and the school’s responsibilities to ensure that all students have access to an education free from fear of, or actual, violence and harassment. Title IX addresses both individual incidents and “hostile environments” that impact a student’s ability to learn. The plan should clearly explain how and when Title IX reports are made, how they are investigated, how violations are addressed, and what rights and resources are available to the parties involved in a Title IX investigation.
- After identifying the school’s policies and Title IX plan (or lack thereof), parents can educate themselves on what is required by Title IX, to see if the existing plan adequately addresses everything required by the law and recommended by Title IX experts. Sites such as Know Your IX, SSAIS.org , and the National Women’s Law Center offer helpful information, and you can access the Title IX guidance documents directly on the U.S Department of Education website where documents explain in detail a school’s responsibility to respond to sexual harassment and assault.
- Find a local expert on Title IX who can help with your research. For example, if you have a college nearby, their Title IX office may have staff willing to help you; a local rape crisis center may also have advocates or administrators who are versed in Title IX matters and will assist your efforts. Local attorneys who take civil rights cases or a state victims’ rights organization may also be good resources.
- If your school does not have a clear Title IX plan, parents can get involved. Request a meeting with the District Title IX Coordinator or the Title IX Coordinator for a school (they should be identified on the school website; if not, start with the district Superintendent). Let them know you are interested in knowing more about their policies. This meeting will give you an idea of whether the schools have adequately addressed this issue. Bring someone who has a working knowledge of Title IX (see above) to the meeting with the school and make it clear your interest is to learn more and, if needed, help the school work towards a “gold standard” Title IX plan and response.
- Some things you can learn from your meeting: when and by whom are the Title IX coordinators trained? Who is responsible for conducting Title IX investigations and how are they trained? Are students and staff all aware of their Title IX rights? How does the school ensure this? Does the school have a partnership with confidential advocates to help victim/survivors and their families navigate the process of a report?
- If your school does not have the answers to these questions, you can contact your state Department of Education to find out how training can be provided to the schools, and if it can provide best practice recommendations. Local colleges can also be a source for Title IX training.
- Depending on the school’s response to your meeting, your next steps will hopefully be taken in collaboration with the school. If you have approached them in the spirit of “we’d like to help” rather than “we think you are doing a terrible job,” they may be relieved to have the help learning how to create a really great response system (“We want to help you become the gold standard that other districts can adopt” is a great way to approach them). Either way, a great next step is to involve other parents. Find the best way to connect with other parents (social media?) and set a meeting of interested parents with whom you can discuss what you have learned and how to move forward. Provide your group with the resources to educate themselves on Title IX, and then create a “to do” list of goals for improvement, based on what you see is lacking.
- Let the School Board know what you are doing: explain the need you have identified, your willingness to lead the work, and ask for their support.
- List of improvements in hand, continue to meet with the school district and ask that the changes be made. A task force/work group of school administrators, parents and students can be convened to create the best possible policies and Title IX plan.
- Find a couple of models for the plan you would like to see (no need to start from scratch). Here is one plan that was created through this “task force” process that demonstrates the scope of a good Title IX plan – use it is an example, but do not let it limit you: what you create could be better, and will be reflective of your own community’s needs.
- Creating the Title IX plan is not the end of the work. How will you ensure that the school is faithful to it, in every case? Creating a system of accountability is important. Work with the school to discuss how this can be done – not because you don’t trust them, but because you want to make sure that everyone benefits from their gold-standard protocols.
- Find a way to keep your parent group engaged and active once the Title IX plan is in place. A Facebook group where resources, articles and observations can be shared can be a successful way to keep the momentum going, along with quarterly (monthly?) social gatherings. There are so many related issues: comprehensive sex ed in the schools (teaching healthy relationships is the true core of sexual abuse prevention), access to confidential advocacy for youth, student activism at school around changing existing rape culture, education to sports teams about creating safe environment, etc. Parents have infinite power to help their children improve the society and culture of their schools, and Title IX compliance may be only the beginning of what you can achieve.
Susan Moen is Executive Director of the Jackson County SART, which provides direct services to sexual assault survivors and a K-12 gender violence prevention program. She advocates for students during Title IX cases and helps Jackson County schools create trauma-informed Title IX plans. She is a founding Board member of the You Have Options Program and a member of the SSAIS Advisory Board.
#MeTooK12: How can we end sexual assault in schools?
by Beth Hoover, Communications Manager and Violence Prevention Trainer at Power Up, Speak Out! and Domestic and Sexual Violence Services, Red Lodge, Montana.
For too long, survivors have heard that if “something” happened to them – like sexual harassment or assault – it was probably their fault. With the avalanche of survivors coming forward, we’ve started to hear different narratives in media outlets that give educators and advocates hope for change. This hope is largely due to the hashtags #MeToo and #MeTooK12.
Teen dating violence, sexual assault, and sexual harassment in K-12 schools are not new. Yet, many schools still don’t have policies in place to address sexual violence and the hostile learning environment it can create. This oversight exists even though Title IX clearly creates a legal obligation for schools that receive federal funds to address sexual harassment and assault. Unfortunately, legal obligation hasn’t compelled schools to change the culture of sexual violence.
That’s why those of us involved in consent education believe that Title IX is only part of the solution. We believe that schools need to do three things to stop sexual violence. They need to follow policies and laws that provide an education free from sexual harassment and assault. They need to support survivors. And they need to provide education about boundaries and consent. All three of these approaches need to be used together to end sexual harassment and assault in schools.
Organizations like ours are concerned that many schools still don’t provide education about boundaries and consent at the K-12 level. There is evidence to suggest that education about boundaries and consent reduces sexual violence perpetration. We’ve also heard from teachers using our lessons that education can give survivors the necessary language and assurance to tell someone what happened to them. In addition, our culture still reinforces rape myths and false ideas about what constitutes sexual harassment, making it difficult sometimes for students to identify sexual harassment and assault.
One school counselor told us that without education many of her students don’t understand that what happened to them is sexual harassment or assault. She stated, “If you can’t name something, you can’t explain why it was wrong.” For example, one 7th grader had been molested by her step-brother. She knew it wasn’t rape, but she didn’t understand that there were other ways to be sexually assaulted. She knew it felt wrong, but didn’t know how to describe it. So she didn’t tell anyone until after participating in lessons about boundaries and consent. Without the language of “someone crossed my boundaries without my consent,” students don’t know how to explain what a perpetrator did. Having the language to come forward allows them to receive the support they needed from the school, their families, and law enforcement.
Education can also influence bystanders to intervene or speak out when they see sexual harassment or assault. In addition, education ultimately makes it easier to uphold policies and laws like Title IX. When education begins at the K-12 level, students enter the world after high school knowing that sexual harassment and assault are wrong. This can create safer universities and colleges, as well as keeping the behaviors from continuing in the work place.
Students grow up to become many things – principals, school counselors, lawyers, law enforcement officers, judges, school board members. Instead of having to try to educate or convince them as adults that sexual harassment and assault are wrong, they’ll already know that. When the majority of the population truly understands sexual violence, upholding laws like Title IX won’t be such an uphill battle.
Consent education alone won’t end sexual violence. Schools must do a better job of supporting students who report and survive sexual harassment and assault. They must also uphold policies and laws that protect students from sex discrimination, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We believe that using all of these approaches together is the only way to ultimately end sexual violence in schools.
If you’re a parent or community member who wants to get involved, here are a few things you could do:
- Explore the recommendations in “Parents: You Can Become the Agent of Change for Title IX Policies in Your Schools.”
- Talk with your local school board, school administration, or a sympathetic teacher about whether your school is Title IX compliant. Use the SSAIS Title IX checklist. Show them the SSAIS website for free resources to create safe and Title IX compliant schools.
- Teach your own children about consent. Even if you have preschool age children, it’s never too early to start. Read “3 Ways to Teach Consent to Your Preschooler.” For children in middle school and up, read “Teaching Consent Doesn’t Have to Be Hard.”